Ischemic Stroke Concept Map | Diagnosis | Pathophysiology | Risk Factors | Treatment | Prevention

Ischemic Stroke Concept Map: An Overview

Explanation Video

To know about map's content, take few minutes to watch this video. The video shows you how to read the map and how information is linked to each other.

Clinical Presentation and Diagnosis of Stroke

The map starts by the warning signs of stroke which result from sudden loss of blood circulation to an area of the brain. Once the patient reaches the emergency department, diagnostic procedures are done to exclude other causes of neurologic deficit and to establish type of stroke whether it is ischemic or hemorrhagic. An essential part of diagnosis is to identify time of onset of stroke, for deciding if the patient is eligible for thrombolytic therapy. And to identify the risk factors in order to determine secondary preventive measures.

Visit also Imaging and Diagnostic Procedures for Stroke Mind Map

Pathophysiology and Risk Factors

Ischemic stroke is caused mainly by cerebral artery occlusion, which occurs due to one of the following three mechanisms, either, thrombotic occlusion, embolism, or systemic hypoperfusion. You’ll find links between the modifiable risk factors and these mechanisms. For example, atherosclerosis as a risk factor for ischemic stroke may cause atherosclerotic thrombosis or embolism which lead to cerebral artery occlusion.

Modifiable risk factors of stroke should be considered for primary as well as secondary prevention of Ischemic stroke.

Treatment and Secondary Prevention

Treatment of ischemic stroke includes: supportive care, pharmacological treatment, and nonpharmacological treatment.

Regarding pharmacological treatment, it includes mainly, thrombolysis using the fibrinolytic agent alteplase, then antithrombotic therapy using tnti-platelet drugs and anticoagulants.

For patients with acute stroke without cerebral venous sinus thrombosis who are presented within 4.5 hours and have no contraindication to thrombolysis, alteplase is the first choice. However, for those who are presented after 4.5 hours or have contraindications to thrombolysis, aspirin is the first choice therapy.

And for acute stroke with cerebral venous sinus thrombosis, full-dose anticoagulation treatment with heparin then warfarin is recommended.

Antithrombotic therapy also plays a role in secondary prevention of ischemic stroke. In case of Noncardioembolic stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA), antiplatelet therapy is recommended for secondary prevention. But in case of cardioembolic stroke, warfarin is used instead.

Low-dose subcutaneous unfractionated or low molecular weight heparin has a role in prophylaxis against deep pain thrombosis and pulmonary embolism that usually threaten immobilized stroke patients. Anticoagulants should be used with high consideration to the potential risk of bleeding as an adverse effect of these agents.

Non pharmacological therapy including Carotid Endarterectomy or Carotid Angioplasty and Stenting are considered for secondary prevention for selected patients with carotid artery stenosis.

Back to alteplase for further details. Alteplase is a fibrinolytic agent that causes breakdown of blood clot and restoration of blood supply to the brain, resulting in resolution of neurologic deficits. However, hyperfibrinolysis effect of alteplase may cause hemorrhage which is manifested as systemic hemorrhage or intracranial hemorrhage. Accordingly, ischemic stroke patient should be monitored for the signs of hemorrhage and managed as needed. The patient should also undergo neurological assessment, blood pressure measurement and computed tomography (CT) scanning in case of suspected hemorrhage and 24 hours before starting anticoagulants or antiplatelet agents, in order to avoid risk of bleeding.

Ischemic Stroke Concept Map Folded Poster

We hope you find Ischemic Stroke Concept Map helpful and we are looking forward to hearing your opinionThis map is available in the following formats: 

Map's Format



Folded Poster

The maps is printed out on ordinary A1 size paper and it is folded to be nearly sized as A4 paper.


To be sent to your address through the Egyptian Registered Postal Mail.

Delivery in Egypt takes few days,

Other countries: 2-3 weeks; you can upgrade to express mail. Please contact us for details.

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Whole Map

It's the map's soft copy. You will have the map as a whole on your computer screen.

Electornic; Download link.

A .pdf file for the whole map will be available for download immediately after payment received.

Printing the .pdf file of the map is not allowed.
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Printable Version

The map is split into pages to be printed on nine A4 papers. After printing them, you have to tape the edges together to make a folded poster.

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A .pdf file for the printable version of the map will be available for download immediately after payment received.

Printing is allowed. The map is to be printed out on several pages.
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Ischemic Stroke Concept Map by Maha Atef, B Pharm
Last updated on: 25 January 2012
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