Obesity Concept Map | Etiology and Risk Factors | Diagnosis | Complications | Comorbidities | Treatment

Obesity Concept Map
Obesity Concept Map
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Obesity Concept Map: An Overview

The aim of this concept map is to clarify the approach for evaluating and managing overweight/obesity patients.

Definition

The map starts with the definition of Obesity "obesity is excess body fat.  It is defined as a body mass index (BMI)  30 kg/m2." and the epidemiology.  On the left side of the map, you'll find obesity etiology and risk factors stated and represented using a funny image that will help you memorize this part easily.

Etiology and Risk Factors

Factors that contribute to obesity include:
·         Genetic factors; cause primary obesity
·         Environmental factors
·         Secondary causes; medications and medical conditions that may cause secondary obesity
·         Psychiatric disorders
·         Physiological factors
·         Other risk factors
Obesity Etiology and Risk Factors
Obesity Etiology and Risk Factors - part of the map
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Classification

According to the etiology:
·         Primary obesity
·         Secondary obesity

According to body mass index (BMI)
Classification of obesity according to Body Mass Index (BMI)
Classification of obesity according to BMI

According to waist-to-hip ratio (fat distribution):
·         Apple obesity
·         Pear obesity

Diagnosis and Clinical Presentation

Diagnosis of obesity is based on
1-      History; it is important to assess patient's dietary habit, physical activity level, whether obesity is due to one of the secondary causes or not, and if the patient have any of obesity comorbid conditions that should be managed besides to obesity.
2-      Physical Examination, includes:
·         Body mass index (BMI) = weight / height2 (kg/m2); it is used to assess the severity of obesity; see previous table
·         Body composition analysis; assesses percentage of body fat and muscle.
·         Waist circumference; estimates visceral fat
·         Waist-to-hip ratio; measures fat distribution; accordingly obesity is classified into: Pear obesity (gynoid obesity) and Apple obesity (Android obesity)
3-      Laboratory Test that assess secondary causes and/or comorbid condition, examples:
·         Fasting lipid profile
·         Fasting plasma glucose, hemoglobin A1c, and electrolyte measurements
·         Serum thyroid stimulation hormone and free T4 measurement

Complications and Comorbidities

They are stated in the map using a simple figure showing sites of organs exposed to obesity complications.  Overall they can be: psychosocial, neurological, cardiovascular, endocrinal, musculoskeletal, renal, gastrointestinal, and/ or pulmonary.

Using the previously mentioned aspects of obesity – risk factors, secondary causes and information got from diagnosis and clinical presentation -  individualized treatment goals and plan are to be set.

Treatment of Obesity

The map includes treatment goals and approach.

First line therapy for obesity is Non-Pharmacological Treatment including: Low-calorie diet (LCD), Exercise, and Behavioral Modification – benefits of each and more details are stated in the map.

Pharmacotherapy – presented in the form of comparison; comparing:
-          Centrally acting anorexiant medications (impair dietary intake)
First, Agents Approved for Long-Term Use (Lorcaserin - Phentermine/Topiramate ER)
Second, Agents Approved for Short-Term Use (Phentermine – Diethylpropion)

-          Peripherally acting medications (impair dietary absorption): Orlistat
Bariatric Surgery – the map explains its indications, benefits, most common procedures (Adjustable gastric banding - Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB)), and post-operative maintenance and supplementation.

This map will help you link between obesity etiology and/or risk factors and diagnosis for the aim of individualizing therapy.


Obesity Concept Map Folded Poster
Obesity Folded Map

We hope you find Obesity concept map helpful and we are looking forward to hearing your opinion. This map is available in the following formats:



Map's Format

Delivery

Printing


Folded Poster

The maps is printed out on ordinary A1 size paper and it is folded to be nearly sized as A4 paper.

Physical.

To be sent to your address through the Egyptian Registered Postal Mail.

Delivery in Egypt takes few days,

Other countries: 2-3 weeks; you can upgrade to express mail. Please contact us for details.

Already printed out.
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Whole Map

It's the map's soft copy. You will have the map as a whole on your computer screen.



Electornic; Download link.

A .pdf file for the whole map will be available for download immediately after payment received.

Printing the .pdf file of the map is not allowed.
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Printable Version

The map is split into pages to be printed on six A4 papers. After printing them, you have to tape the edges together to make a folded poster.

Electornic; Download link.

A .pdf file for the printable version of the map will be available for download immediately after payment received.

Printing is allowed. The map is to be printed out on several pages.
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Obesity concept map is written by: Hagar M. Abdel AA'l, B Pharm.
Reviewed and edited by Maha Atef, B Pharm.
Last updated on: 7 February 2013
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Who are "Zooming out"?

We are a team of pharmacists who are interested in the science of pharmacotherapy, which is represented through this site. At this site we are trying to help whoever experiences difficulty understanding and memorizing diseases and their corresponding treatment approaches. We are convinced with the idea of connecting information together and making links between it, to prevent its escape from minds, so we are presenting diseases using the concept mapping and the mind mapping methods to help in dealing with “information explosion!” in the field of pharmacotherapy. We really hope that you find this site helpful. Know more about those who are Zooming out!