Osteoporosis Concept Map | Pathophysiology | Risk Factors of OP | OP Medications | Prevention

osteoporosis concept map
Osteoporosis Concept Map
Click on image to enlarge

Osteoporosis Concept Map: An Overview

Osteoporosis is a progressive and metabolic bone disease that decreases bone density and causes deterioration of bone structure, consequently osteoporosis increases fracture risk even from minor traumatic events as falling from standing position.

This concept map about osteoporosis disease will help you relate and link between: pathophysiology, definition, epidemiology, classification, risk factors, clinical presentation, treatment, and prevention of osteoporosis.

Open the map and read the following explanation as an overview that will help you understand the map.

Pathophysiology

Normally, there is a balance between two ongoing dynamic processes of bone metabolism; the two processes are: bone resorption (daily removal of small amount of bone minerals) and bone deposition (apposition of new bone).  Disturbed bone remodeling balance; with bone resportion more than bone deposition causes osteoporosis.
Mechanisms of bone loss may involve:
-          Age-related decline in the number and the activity of osteoblasts (cells responsible for bone deposition).
-          Decline in local and systemic growth factors.
-          Increase in local and cytokines that stimulates bone resorption.

Classification

Osteoporosis is classified as:

-          Primary osteoporosis

·         Type I/postmenopausal osteoporosis
·         Type II/senile osteoporosis

-          Secondary osteoporosis

Causes by other conditions as hormonal imbalances, certain diseases or medications.

Epidemiology

Incidence of osteoporosis increases with age and rapid bone loss begins at the time of menopause (about 50 years old).  Osteoporosis affects women more than men, with a female-to-male ratio of 4:1.
This part of the map is linked to:
  1. Screening criteria for osteoporosis, and
  2. Imaging for osteoporosis.  It includes a table comparison between noninvasive techniques for measuring bone mineral density.
  3. Osteoporosis risk factors.
  4. Prevention of osteoporosis (see the map for details).

Risk Factors

Osteoporosis risk factors are represented in a mind map that reveals modifiable and unmodifiable risk factors and diseases and medications that may contribute to developing osteoporosis or cause secondary osteoporosis.

Clinical Presentation

The patient is asymptomatic unless a fracture has occurred.
Signs and symptoms and laboratory tests are stated in the map.

Treatment

Osteoporosis treatment goals include:
  • Preserve bone mass
  • Prevent fractures
  • Decrease pain
  • Maintain function
Approaches for achieving these goals are presented in the following figure (part of the map):
Osteoporosis treatment goals
Osteoporosis treatment goals
Click on image to enlarge
Preservation of bone mass and prevention of bone loss in patients diagnosed with osteoporosis, could be achieved through:
  • Pharmacological treatment
  • Risk factors modifications
  • Calcium and vitamin D intake
  • Physical Activity (strengthening exercises)

Pharmacological treatment of osteoporosis

This map includes a comparison between osteoporosis medications based on mechanism of action, dose, efficacy, indications, side effects, contraindications of each class of the following:

Antiresorptive Drugs

  • Bisphosphonates
  • Estrogen Replacement Therapy (ERT) /Hormonal Replacement Therapy (HRT)
  • Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators (SERMs)
  • Calcitonin

Bone Forming Drugs

  • Parathyroid hormone (PTH)

We hope you find Osteoporosis Concept Map helpful.  Please let us  know your opinion in a comment below. You can access this map for free. But if you want it as printable version or a folded poster please order below.


Map's Format

Delivery

Printing


Folded Poster

The maps is printed out on ordinary A1 size paper and it is folded to be nearly sized as A4 paper.

Physical.

To be sent to your address through the Egyptian Registered Postal Mail.

Delivery in Egypt takes few days,

Other countries: 2-3 weeks; you can upgrade to express mail. Please contact us for details.

Already printed out.
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Printable Version

The map is split into pages to be printed on six A4 papers. After printing them, you have to tape the edges together to make a folded poster.

Electornic; Download link.

A .pdf file for the printable version of the map will be available for download immediately after payment received.

Printing is allowed. The map is to be printed out on several pages.
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Osteoporosis concept map by Maha Atef, B Pharm.

Version: 2.0
Last updated on: 3 July 2014.

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